P 330-388-7050 F 330-319-7722


Literature Comparing Endoscopic and Fluoroscopic Swallowing Evaluations

Studies show there is good agreement between VFSS and FEES when examining premature spillage, pharyngeal residue, laryngeal penetration, and tracheal aspiration.

  • Bastian R.  Video endoscopic evaluation of patients with dysphagia:  an adjunct to the modified barium swallow.  Otolaryngol-Head & Neck Surg 1991; 104(3):339-50.
  • Crary, M.A., Baron, J.  (1997) Endoscopic and Fluoroscopic Evaluations of Swallowing: Comparison of Observed and Inferred Findings.  Dysphagia, 12(2).
  • Langmore, S.E., Schatz, K., & Olsen, N.  (1991).  Endoscopic and video fluoroscopic evaluations of swallowing and aspiration.  Annals of Otalgia, Rhinology & Laryngology. 100(8), 678-681.
  • Mu, C.H., Hsiao, T.Y., Chen, J.C., Chang, Y.C., &Lee, S.Y. (1997).  Evaluation of swallowing safety with fiberoptic endoscope: Comparison with video fluoroscopic technique.  Laryngoscope, 107, 396-401.

Literature Examining Safety of FEES

“The concerns for patient safety described by a few are not borne out in     carefully controlled studies of FEESST swallow safety.  When FEESST is performed…by properly trained clinicians, the incidence of complications is  practically nonexistent.   –Aviv

  • Aviv, J.E., Kaplan, S.T., Thompson, J.E., Spitzer, J., Diamond, B., Close, L.G.  The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: an analysis of 500 consecutive evaluations.  Dysphagia.  2000;15:39-44.
  • Cohen, M.A., Setzen, M., Perlman, P.W., Ditkoff, M., Mattucci, K.F., Guss, J.  The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing in an outpatient otolaryngology setting.  Laryngoscope.  2003;113:21-24.
  • Aviv, J.E., Murray, T., Zschommler, A., Cohen, M., Gartner, C.  Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: patient characteristics and analysis of safety in 1340 consecutive examinations.  Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2005;114:173-176.

Literature Addressing Patient Comfort and Anesthesia

Studies show there are no significant differences in patient comfort level regardless of use of anesthesia.

  • Leder, S.B., Ross, D.A., Briskin, K.B., Sasaki, C.T.  A prospective, double-blind, randomized study on the use of a topical anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, and placebo during transnasal flexible fiberoptic endoscopy.  Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research.  1997;40:1352-1357.
  • Singh, V., Brockbank, M.J., Todd, G.B.  Flexible transnasal endoscopy: is local anesthetic necessary?  Journal of Laryngology and Otology.  July 1997;111:616-618.